Self-esteem change and diurnal cortisol secretion in older adulthood.
|Title||Self-esteem change and diurnal cortisol secretion in older adulthood.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Liu SY, Wrosch C, Miller GE, Pruessner JC|
|Date Published||2014 Mar|
|Keywords||Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging, Circadian Rhythm, Depression, Female, Humans, Hydrocortisone, Male, Middle Aged, Risk Factors, Saliva, Self Concept, Stress, Psychological|
OBJECTIVE: Research suggests that self-esteem can decline in older adulthood. This process could remove a buffer that normally protects individuals against distress-related changes in cortisol secretion. We examined this possibility by testing whether change in self-esteem would predict alterations in cortisol secretion, particularly among older adults who reported high levels of depressive symptoms or perceived stress.METHODS: 147 older adults (aged 60+) completed three days of diurnal cortisol measurements at three different time points, namely every two years over a total period of four years. Measures of self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress were assessed at T1 and T2. Potential demographic and health-related confounds were measured at baseline (partnership status, SES, mortality risk index, and medication).RESULTS: Linear regression models indicated that a decline in self-esteem from T1 to T2 predicted elevated cortisol output (AUCG) from T2 to T3, F (1, 137)=8.09, β=-.25, R(2)=.05, p=.005. Interaction analyses revealed that this association was particularly strong among participants who experienced higher T1 or T2 levels of depressive symptoms or perceived stress, +1SD: βs=-.34 to -.51, ps<.001, but not significant among their counterparts who reported relatively lower levels of depressive symptoms or perceived stress, -1SD: βs=.03 to 11, ps>.43.CONCLUSIONS: Declines in self-esteem represent a mechanism that contributes to higher levels of diurnal cortisol secretion if older adults experience psychological distress. Increases in self-esteem, by contrast, can ameliorate older adults' cortisol regulation in stressful circumstances.
|Grant List||/ / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / Canada|