Fully characterizing age differences in the brain is a key task for combating aging-related cognitive decline. Using propensity score matching on 2 independent, narrow-age cohorts, we used data on childhood cognitive ability, socioeconomic background, and intracranial volume to match participants at mean age of 92 years (n = 42) to very similar participants at mean age of 73 years (n = 126). Examining a variety of global and regional structural neuroimaging variables, there were large differences in gray and white matter volumes, cortical surface area, cortical thickness, and white matter hyperintensity volume and spatial extent. In a mediation analysis, the total volume of white matter hyperintensities and total cortical surface area jointly mediated 24.9% of the relation between age and general cognitive ability (tissue volumes and cortical thickness were not significant mediators in this analysis). These findings provide an unusual and valuable perspective on neurostructural aging, in which brains from the 8th and 10th decades of life differ widely despite the same cognitive, socioeconomic, and brain-volumetric starting points.

VL - 62 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29149632?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Beyond a bigger brain: Multivariable structural brain imaging and intelligence. JF - Intelligence Y1 - 2015 A1 - Ritchie, Stuart J A1 - Booth, Tom A1 - Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C A1 - Corley, Janie A1 - Maniega, Susana Muñoz A1 - Gow, Alan J A1 - Royle, Natalie A A1 - Pattie, Alison A1 - Sherif Karama A1 - Starr, John M A1 - Bastin, Mark E A1 - Wardlaw, Joanna M A1 - Deary, Ian J AB -People with larger brains tend to score higher on tests of general intelligence (g). It is unclear, however, how much variance in intelligence other brain measurements would account for if included together with brain volume in a multivariable model. We examined a large sample of individuals in their seventies (n = 672) who were administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery. Using structural equation modelling, we related six common magnetic resonance imaging-derived brain variables that represent normal and abnormal features-brain volume, cortical thickness, white matter structure, white matter hyperintensity load, iron deposits, and microbleeds-to g and to fluid intelligence. As expected, brain volume accounted for the largest portion of variance (~ 12%, depending on modelling choices). Adding the additional variables, especially cortical thickness (+~ 5%) and white matter hyperintensity load (+~ 2%), increased the predictive value of the model. Depending on modelling choices, all neuroimaging variables together accounted for 18-21% of the variance in intelligence. These results reveal which structural brain imaging measures relate to g over and above the largest contributor, total brain volume. They raise questions regarding which other neuroimaging measures might account for even more of the variance in intelligence.

VL - 51 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26240470?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data. JF - Brain Imaging Behav Y1 - 2014 A1 - Thompson, Paul M A1 - Stein, Jason L A1 - Medland, Sarah E A1 - Hibar, Derrek P A1 - Vasquez, Alejandro Arias A1 - Renteria, Miguel E A1 - Toro, Roberto A1 - Jahanshad, Neda A1 - Schumann, Gunter A1 - Franke, Barbara A1 - Wright, Margaret J A1 - Martin, Nicholas G A1 - Agartz, Ingrid A1 - Alda, Martin A1 - Alhusaini, Saud A1 - Almasy, Laura A1 - Almeida, Jorge A1 - Alpert, Kathryn A1 - Andreasen, Nancy C A1 - Andreassen, Ole A A1 - Apostolova, Liana G A1 - Appel, Katja A1 - Armstrong, Nicola J A1 - Aribisala, Benjamin A1 - Bastin, Mark E A1 - Bauer, Michael A1 - Bearden, Carrie E A1 - Bergmann, Orjan A1 - Binder, Elisabeth B A1 - Blangero, John A1 - Bockholt, Henry J A1 - Bøen, Erlend A1 - Bois, Catherine A1 - Boomsma, Dorret I A1 - Booth, Tom A1 - Bowman, Ian J A1 - Bralten, Janita A1 - Brouwer, Rachel M A1 - Brunner, Han G A1 - Brohawn, David G A1 - Buckner, Randy L A1 - Buitelaar, Jan A1 - Bulayeva, Kazima A1 - Bustillo, Juan R A1 - Calhoun, Vince D A1 - Cannon, Dara M A1 - Cantor, Rita M A1 - Carless, Melanie A A1 - Caseras, Xavier A1 - Cavalleri, Gianpiero L A1 - M Mallar Chakravarty A1 - Chang, Kiki D A1 - Ching, Christopher R K A1 - Christoforou, Andrea A1 - Cichon, Sven A1 - Clark, Vincent P A1 - Conrod, Patricia A1 - Coppola, Giovanni A1 - Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto A1 - Curran, Joanne E A1 - Czisch, Michael A1 - Deary, Ian J A1 - de Geus, Eco J C A1 - den Braber, Anouk A1 - Delvecchio, Giuseppe A1 - Depondt, Chantal A1 - de Haan, Lieuwe A1 - de Zubicaray, Greig I A1 - Dima, Danai A1 - Dimitrova, Rali A1 - Djurovic, Srdjan A1 - Dong, Hongwei A1 - Donohoe, Gary A1 - Duggirala, Ravindranath A1 - Dyer, Thomas D A1 - Ehrlich, Stefan A1 - Ekman, Carl Johan A1 - Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn A1 - Emsell, Louise A1 - Erk, Susanne A1 - Espeseth, Thomas A1 - Fagerness, Jesen A1 - Fears, Scott A1 - Fedko, Iryna A1 - Fernández, Guillén A1 - Fisher, Simon E A1 - Foroud, Tatiana A1 - Fox, Peter T A1 - Francks, Clyde A1 - Frangou, Sophia A1 - Frey, Eva Maria A1 - Frodl, Thomas A1 - Frouin, Vincent A1 - Garavan, Hugh A1 - Giddaluru, Sudheer A1 - Glahn, David C A1 - Godlewska, Beata A1 - Goldstein, Rita Z A1 - Gollub, Randy L A1 - Grabe, Hans J A1 - Grimm, Oliver A1 - Gruber, Oliver A1 - Guadalupe, Tulio A1 - Gur, Raquel E A1 - Gur, Ruben C A1 - Göring, Harald H H A1 - Hagenaars, Saskia A1 - Hajek, Tomas A1 - Hall, Geoffrey B A1 - Hall, Jeremy A1 - Hardy, John A1 - Hartman, Catharina A A1 - Hass, Johanna A1 - Hatton, Sean N A1 - Haukvik, Unn K A1 - Hegenscheid, Katrin A1 - Heinz, Andreas A1 - Hickie, Ian B A1 - Ho, Beng-Choon A1 - Hoehn, David A1 - Hoekstra, Pieter J A1 - Hollinshead, Marisa A1 - Holmes, Avram J A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Hoogman, Martine A1 - Hong, L Elliot A1 - Hosten, Norbert A1 - Hottenga, Jouke-Jan A1 - Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E A1 - Hwang, Kristy S A1 - Jack, Clifford R A1 - Jenkinson, Mark A1 - Johnston, Caroline A1 - Jönsson, Erik G A1 - Kahn, René S A1 - Kasperaviciute, Dalia A1 - Kelly, Sinead A1 - Kim, Sungeun A1 - Kochunov, Peter A1 - Koenders, Laura A1 - Krämer, Bernd A1 - Kwok, John B J A1 - Lagopoulos, Jim A1 - Laje, Gonzalo A1 - Landen, Mikael A1 - Landman, Bennett A A1 - Lauriello, John A1 - Lawrie, Stephen M A1 - Lee, Phil H A1 - Le Hellard, Stephanie A1 - Lemaître, Herve A1 - Leonardo, Cassandra D A1 - Li, Chiang-Shan A1 - Liberg, Benny A1 - Liewald, David C A1 - Liu, Xinmin A1 - Lopez, Lorna M A1 - Loth, Eva A1 - Lourdusamy, Anbarasu A1 - Luciano, Michelle A1 - Macciardi, Fabio A1 - Machielsen, Marise W J A1 - Macqueen, Glenda M A1 - Malt, Ulrik F A1 - Mandl, René A1 - Manoach, Dara S A1 - Martinot, Jean-Luc A1 - Matarin, Mar A1 - Mather, Karen A A1 - Mattheisen, Manuel A1 - Mattingsdal, Morten A1 - Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas A1 - McDonald, Colm A1 - McIntosh, Andrew M A1 - McMahon, Francis J A1 - McMahon, Katie L A1 - Meisenzahl, Eva A1 - Melle, Ingrid A1 - Milaneschi, Yuri A1 - Mohnke, Sebastian A1 - Montgomery, Grant W A1 - Morris, Derek W A1 - Moses, Eric K A1 - Mueller, Bryon A A1 - Muñoz Maniega, Susana A1 - Mühleisen, Thomas W A1 - Müller-Myhsok, Bertram A1 - Mwangi, Benson A1 - Nauck, Matthias A1 - Nho, Kwangsik A1 - Nichols, Thomas E A1 - Nilsson, Lars-Göran A1 - Nugent, Allison C A1 - Nyberg, Lars A1 - Olvera, Rene L A1 - Oosterlaan, Jaap A1 - Ophoff, Roel A A1 - Pandolfo, Massimo A1 - Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina A1 - Papmeyer, Martina A1 - Paus, Tomas A1 - Pausova, Zdenka A1 - Pearlson, Godfrey D A1 - Penninx, Brenda W A1 - Peterson, Charles P A1 - Pfennig, Andrea A1 - Phillips, Mary A1 - Pike, G Bruce A1 - Poline, Jean-Baptiste A1 - Potkin, Steven G A1 - Pütz, Benno A1 - Ramasamy, Adaikalavan A1 - Rasmussen, Jerod A1 - Rietschel, Marcella A1 - Rijpkema, Mark A1 - Risacher, Shannon L A1 - Roffman, Joshua L A1 - Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto A1 - Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina A1 - Rose, Emma J A1 - Royle, Natalie A A1 - Rujescu, Dan A1 - Ryten, Mina A1 - Sachdev, Perminder S A1 - Salami, Alireza A1 - Satterthwaite, Theodore D A1 - Savitz, Jonathan A1 - Saykin, Andrew J A1 - Scanlon, Cathy A1 - Schmaal, Lianne A1 - Schnack, Hugo G A1 - Schork, Andrew J A1 - Schulz, S Charles A1 - Schür, Remmelt A1 - Seidman, Larry A1 - Shen, Li A1 - Shoemaker, Jody M A1 - Simmons, Andrew A1 - Sisodiya, Sanjay M A1 - Smith, Colin A1 - Smoller, Jordan W A1 - Soares, Jair C A1 - Sponheim, Scott R A1 - Sprooten, Emma A1 - Starr, John M A1 - Steen, Vidar M A1 - Strakowski, Stephen A1 - Strike, Lachlan A1 - Sussmann, Jessika A1 - Sämann, Philipp G A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Toga, Arthur W A1 - Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana A1 - Trabzuni, Daniah A1 - Trost, Sarah A1 - Turner, Jessica A1 - Van den Heuvel, Martijn A1 - van der Wee, Nic J A1 - van Eijk, Kristel A1 - van Erp, Theo G M A1 - van Haren, Neeltje E M A1 - van 't Ent, Dennis A1 - van Tol, Marie-Jose A1 - Valdés Hernández, Maria C A1 - Veltman, Dick J A1 - Versace, Amelia A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - Walker, Robert A1 - Walter, Henrik A1 - Wang, Lei A1 - Wardlaw, Joanna M A1 - Weale, Michael E A1 - Weiner, Michael W A1 - Wen, Wei A1 - Westlye, Lars T A1 - Whalley, Heather C A1 - Whelan, Christopher D A1 - White, Tonya A1 - Winkler, Anderson M A1 - Wittfeld, Katharina A1 - Woldehawariat, Girma A1 - Wolf, Christiane A1 - Zilles, David A1 - Zwiers, Marcel P A1 - Thalamuthu, Anbupalam A1 - Schofield, Peter R A1 - Freimer, Nelson B A1 - Lawrence, Natalia S A1 - Drevets, Wayne KW - Brain Mapping KW - Cooperative Behavior KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Meta-Analysis as Topic KW - Neuroimaging AB -The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.

VL - 8 IS - 2 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24399358?dopt=Abstract ER -