Increased income over time predicts better self-perceived mental health only at a population level but not for individual changes: An analysis of a longitudinal cohort using cross-lagged models.

TitleIncreased income over time predicts better self-perceived mental health only at a population level but not for individual changes: An analysis of a longitudinal cohort using cross-lagged models.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsSu Y, D'Arcy C, Caron J., Meng X
JournalJ Affect Disord
Volume292
Pagination487-495
Date Published2021 09 01
ISSN1573-2517
KeywordsAged, Cohort Studies, Humans, Income, Male, Mental Health, Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract

BACKGROUND: The literature identifies a strong relationship between mental health and income, but there is little research that clarifies the directional association between household income and self-perceived mental health (SPMH) overtime either at between-perso+n or within-person levels. This study investigates whether higher income predicts better SPMH overtime and poor SPMH predicts lower income overtime both at between-person or within-person levels.METHODS: Data analyzed was from the Montreal Southwest Social and Psychiatric Epidemiology Catchment Area study (ZEPSOM), a longitudinal community-based cohort. The baseline survey was conducted in 2007/8 with follow-up every two years. We traced a total of 3464 participants over a period of 8 years. To examine the associations between income and SPMH at both between-person or within-person levels, cross-lagged panel models (CLPMs) and random intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPMs) were used. Gender and age effects were examined using multiple group analyses. Complete case analyses evaluated the findings' robustness.RESULTS: At between-person levels, higher household income predicted higher SPMH, but not vice versa. These associations were stronger among men and older adults. At within-person levels, higher income did not predict higher SPMH. No significant gender- or age- group differences were observed. Complete case analyses supported the findings.LIMITATIONS: Loss to follow-up may affect the generalizability of the research findings.CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that higher household income predicts higher SPMH at between-person levels. Policy and programs aiming at promoting mental health should focus on low-income individuals, especially men and older adults.

DOI10.1016/j.jad.2021.05.118
Alternate JournalJ Affect Disord
PubMed ID34146900
Grant List / / CIHR / Canada