Unfinished business: Functional outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of a three-year extension of early intervention versus regular care following two years of early intervention for psychosis.

TitleUnfinished business: Functional outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of a three-year extension of early intervention versus regular care following two years of early intervention for psychosis.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsMustafa SS, Malla A, Joober R, Abadi S, Latimer E, Schmitz N, G Jarvis E, Margolese HC, Casacalenda N, Abdel-Baki A, Iyer SN
JournalActa Psychiatr Scand
Volume145
Issue1
Pagination86-99
Date Published2022 Jan
ISSN1600-0447
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether first-episode psychosis patients receiving extended early intervention had better functional outcomes than those in regular care and to examine the predictors of functional outcomes.METHODS: This is a randomized controlled single-blind trial of 220 patients randomized after 2 years of early intervention to receive early intervention or regular care for the subsequent 3 years. Outcomes included cumulative time in functional recovery during the 3-year trial assessed using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS); and employment/education at last assessment which were, respectively, analyzed using multiple linear regression and logistic regression, accounting for well-known predictors. Linear mixed and generalized linear models were also used to examine the course of SOFAS and employment/education over the 3-year period.RESULTS: The extended early intervention and regular care groups did not differ on time in functional recovery (mean = 50.17 weeks, SD = 46.62 vs. mean = 46.18 weeks, SD = 51.54); percent employed/in school (60.4% vs. 68.8%) or change in SOFAS or employment/education status over time. SOFAS scores were stable between years 2 and 5. Individuals with longer periods of total symptom remission experienced significantly longer periods of functional recovery and were likelier to be employed/in school. Those who had completed high school were nine times likelier to be employed/studying.CONCLUSION: Most individuals maintained functional gains accrued from 2 years of early intervention with no further improvement whether in extended early intervention or regular care. There was a gap between symptomatic and functional recovery, and one-third were unemployed/not in school at year 5. The lack of additional progress even in extended early intervention suggests that specific interventions addressing functional roles need to be provided beyond the first 2 years of early intervention. Sustaining symptom remission and high-school completion may be additional avenues for targeting functional recovery.

DOI10.1111/acps.13377
Alternate JournalActa Psychiatr Scand
PubMed ID34599603
Grant List / CAPMC / CIHR / Canada
/ CAPMC / CIHR / Canada