Longitudinally Mapping Childhood Socioeconomic Status Associations with Cortical and Subcortical Morphology.

TitleLongitudinally Mapping Childhood Socioeconomic Status Associations with Cortical and Subcortical Morphology.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsMcDermott CL, Seidlitz J, Nadig A, Liu S, Clasen LS, Blumenthal JD, Reardon PKirkpatric, Lalonde F, Greenstein D, Patel R, M Chakravarty M, Lerch JP, Raznahan A
JournalJ Neurosci
Date Published2018 Dec 26
ISSN1529-2401
Abstract

Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) impacts cognitive development and mental health, but its association with human structural brain development is not yet well-characterized. Here, we analyzed 1243 longitudinally-acquired structural MRI scans from 623 youth (299 female/324 male) to investigate the relation between SES and cortical and subcortical morphology between ages 5 and 25 years. We found positive associations between SES and total volumes of the brain, cortical sheetnd four separate subcortical structures. These associations were stable between ages 5 and 25. Surface-based shape analysis revealed that higher SES is associated with areal expansion of (i) lateral prefrontalnterior cingulate, lateral temporalnd superior parietal cortices and (ii) ventrolateral thalamicnd medial amygdalo-hippocampal sub-regions. Meta-analyses of functional imaging data indicate that cortical correlates of SES are centered on brain systems subserving sensorimotor functions, language, memorynd emotional processing. We further show that anatomical variation within a subset of these cortical regions partially mediates the positive association between SES and IQ. Finally, we identify neuroanatomical correlates of SES that exist above and beyond accompanying variation in IQ. While SES is clearly a complex construct which likely relates to development through diverse, non-deterministic processes, our findings elucidate potential neuroanatomical mediators of the association between SES and cognitive outcomes.Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with developmental disparities in mental health, cognitive abilitynd academic achievement, but efforts to understand underlying SES-brain relationships are ongoing. Here, we leverage a unique developmental neuroimaging dataset to longitudinally map the associations between SES and regional brain anatomy at high spatiotemporal resolution. We find widespread associations between SES and global cortical and subcortical volumes and surface areand localize these correlations to a distributed set of cortical, thalamicnd amygdalohippocampal subregions. Anatomical variation within a subset of these regions partially mediates the positive relationship between SES and IQ. Our findings help to localize cortical and subcortical systems which represent candidate biological substrates for the known relationships between SES and cognition.

DOI10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1808-18.2018
Alternate JournalJ. Neurosci.
PubMed ID30587541