Genetic variants and early cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence phenotypes in adolescents.

TitleGenetic variants and early cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence phenotypes in adolescents.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsO'Loughlin J, Sylvestre M-P, Labbe A, Low NC, Roy-Gagnon M-H, Dugas EN, Karp I, Engert JC
JournalPLoS One
Date Published2014
KeywordsAdolescent, Child, Cohort Studies, Dopamine, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Male, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Smoking, Tobacco Use Disorder

BACKGROUND: While the heritability of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence (ND) is well-documented, the contribution of specific genetic variants to specific phenotypes has not been closely examined. The objectives of this study were to test the associations between 321 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture common genetic variation in 24 genes, and early smoking and ND phenotypes in novice adolescent smokers, and to assess if genetic predictors differ across these phenotypes.METHODS: In a prospective study of 1294 adolescents aged 12-13 years recruited from ten Montreal-area secondary schools, 544 participants who had smoked at least once during the 7-8 year follow-up provided DNA. 321 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 24 candidate genes were tested for an association with number of cigarettes smoked in the past 3 months, and with five ND phenotypes (a modified version of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, the ICD-10 and three clusters of ND symptoms representing withdrawal symptoms, use of nicotine for self-medication, and a general ND/craving symptom indicator).RESULTS: The pattern of SNP-gene associations differed across phenotypes. Sixteen SNPs in seven genes (ANKK1, CHRNA7, DDC, DRD2, COMT, OPRM1, SLC6A3 (also known as DAT1)) were associated with at least one phenotype with a p-value <0.01 using linear mixed models. After permutation and FDR adjustment, none of the associations remained statistically significant, although the p-values for the association between rs557748 in OPRM1 and the ND/craving and self-medication phenotypes were both 0.076.CONCLUSIONS: Because the genetic predictors differ, specific cigarette smoking and ND phenotypes should be distinguished in genetic studies in adolescents. Fifteen of the 16 top-ranked SNPs identified in this study were from loci involved in dopaminergic pathways (ANKK1/DRD2, DDC, COMT, OPRM1, and SLC6A3).IMPACT: Dopaminergic pathways may be salient during early smoking and the development of ND.

Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
PubMed ID25545355
PubMed Central IDPMC4278712
Grant List / / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / Canada