Genetic Differential Susceptibility to Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Obesogenic Behavior: Why Targeted Prevention May Be the Best Societal Investment.
|Title||Genetic Differential Susceptibility to Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Obesogenic Behavior: Why Targeted Prevention May Be the Best Societal Investment.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Silveira PP, Gaudreau H, Atkinson L, Fleming AS, Sokolowski MB, Steiner M, Kennedy JL, Meaney MJ, Levitan RD, Dubé L|
|Date Published||2016 Apr|
|Keywords||Alleles, Body Weight, Canada, Child Behavior, Child, Preschool, Dietary Fats, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Food Preferences, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genotype, Humans, Investments, Male, Pediatric Obesity, Prospective Studies, Receptors, Dopamine D4, Risk Factors, Social Class|
IMPORTANCE: Genes may work by modulating the way individuals respond to environmental variation, and these discrete and differential genes vs environmental interactions may not be readily captured in simple association studies.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children carrying the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 gene living under adverse economic conditions have worse-than-average fat intake compared with those living in a healthy environment.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from an established prospective birth cohort (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment) were used to study 4-year-old children from Montreal, Quebec, Canada and Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A total of 190 children (94 girls and 96 boys) had height and weight measured and complete food diaries and were therefore eligible for the study. The study is derived from a birth cohort started in June 2003 and still ongoing. The last age of follow-up was at 6 years.EXPOSURES: Social environment was characterized based on the gross family income, and DNA was genotyped for the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 gene.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Fat intake.RESULTS: The 5 steps to distinguish the differential susceptibility from other types of interaction were followed, and the study confirms that differential susceptibility is a relevant model to address the association between the 7-repeat allele of DRD4 and food choices in girls. Of the 190 children, 112 did not have the DRD4 7-repeat allele and 78 did. Baseline characteristics did not differ in these 2 groups. Although not different in several confounders, such as maternal educational level, maternal smoking during gestation, birth weight, and breastfeeding duration, girls carrying the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 gene and living in adverse socioeconomic conditions have increased fat intake compared with girls who are noncarriers (DRD4 7+ mean, 33.95% of calories derived from fat; 95% CI, 28.76%-39.13%; DRD4 7- mean, 28.76%; 95% CI, 26.77%-30.83%). However, girls carrying the 7-repeat allele of the same gene and living in better socioeconomic conditions have decreased fat intake compared with noncarriers (DRD4 7+ mean, 29.03% of calories derived from fat; 95% CI, 26.69%-31.51%; DRD4 7- mean, 31.88%; 95% CI, 30.28%-33.58%).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Alleles previously considered to be obesity risk alleles might in fact function as plasticity alleles, determining openness to environmental modification and/or intervention, as seen in the girls in this study. This finding has important implications for obesity prevention and social pediatrics.
|Alternate Journal||JAMA Pediatr|
|Grant List||/ / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / Canada|