Developing human brain: age-related changes in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar anatomy.

TitleDeveloping human brain: age-related changes in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar anatomy.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsSussman D, Leung RC, M Chakravarty M, Lerch JP, Taylor MJ
JournalBrain Behav
Volume6
Issue4
Paginatione00457
Date Published2016 Apr
ISSN2162-3279
Abstract

INTRODUCTION: This study is the first to characterize normal development and sex differences across neuroanatomical structures in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar brain regions in a single large cohort.METHODS: One hundred and ninety-two magnetic resonance images were examined from 96 typically developing females and 96 age-matched typically developing males from 4 to 18 years of age. Image segmentation of the cortex was conducted with CIVET, while that of the cerebellum, hippocampi, thalamus, and basal ganglia were conducted using the MAGeT algorithm.RESULTS: Cortical thickness analysis revealed that most cortical regions decrease linearly, while surface area increases linearly with age. Volume relative to total cerebrum followed a quadratic trend with age, with only the left supramarginal gyrus showing sexual dimorphism. Hippocampal relative volume increased linearly, while the thalamus, caudate, and putamen decreased linearly, and the cerebellum did not change with age. The relative volumes of several subcortical subregions followed inverted U-shaped trends that peaked at ~12 years of age. Many subcortical structures were found to be larger in females than in males, independently of age, while others showed a sex-by-age interaction.CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive assessment of cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar growth patterns during normal development, and draws attention to the role of sex on neuroanatomical maturation throughout childhood and adolescence.

DOI10.1002/brb3.457
Alternate JournalBrain Behav
PubMed ID27066310
PubMed Central IDPMC4802426