Automatic segmentation of the hippocampus for preterm neonates from early-in-life to term-equivalent age.

TitleAutomatic segmentation of the hippocampus for preterm neonates from early-in-life to term-equivalent age.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsGuo T, Winterburn JL, Pipitone J, Duerden EG, Park MTae M, Chau V, Poskitt KJ, Grunau RE, Synnes A, Miller SP, Chakravarty MM
JournalNeuroimage Clin
Volume9
Pagination176-93
Date Published2015
ISSN2213-1582
KeywordsAlgorithms, Female, Gestational Age, Hippocampus, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Infant, Newborn, Infant, Premature, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Monte Carlo Method, Reproducibility of Results
Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The hippocampus, a medial temporal lobe structure central to learning and memory, is particularly vulnerable in preterm-born neonates. To date, segmentation of the hippocampus for preterm-born neonates has not yet been performed early-in-life (shortly after birth when clinically stable). The present study focuses on the development and validation of an automatic segmentation protocol that is based on the MAGeT-Brain (Multiple Automatically Generated Templates) algorithm to delineate the hippocampi of preterm neonates on their brain MRIs acquired at not only term-equivalent age but also early-in-life.METHODS: First, we present a three-step manual segmentation protocol to delineate the hippocampus for preterm neonates and apply this protocol on 22 early-in-life and 22 term images. These manual segmentations are considered the gold standard in assessing the automatic segmentations. MAGeT-Brain, automatic hippocampal segmentation pipeline, requires only a small number of input atlases and reduces the registration and resampling errors by employing an intermediate template library. We assess the segmentation accuracy of MAGeT-Brain in three validation studies, evaluate the hippocampal growth from early-in-life to term-equivalent age, and study the effect of preterm birth on the hippocampal volume. The first experiment thoroughly validates MAGeT-Brain segmentation in three sets of 10-fold Monte Carlo cross-validation (MCCV) analyses with 187 different groups of input atlases and templates. The second experiment segments the neonatal hippocampi on 168 early-in-life and 154 term images and evaluates the hippocampal growth rate of 125 infants from early-in-life to term-equivalent age. The third experiment analyzes the effect of gestational age (GA) at birth on the average hippocampal volume at early-in-life and term-equivalent age using linear regression.RESULTS: The final segmentations demonstrate that MAGeT-Brain consistently provides accurate segmentations in comparison to manually derived gold standards (mean Dice's Kappa > 0.79 and Euclidean distance <1.3 mm between centroids). Using this method, we demonstrate that the average volume of the hippocampus is significantly different (p < 0.0001) in early-in-life (621.8 mm(3)) and term-equivalent age (958.8 mm(3)). Using these differences, we generalize the hippocampal growth rate to 38.3 ± 11.7 mm(3)/week and 40.5 ± 12.9 mm(3)/week for the left and right hippocampi respectively. Not surprisingly, younger gestational age at birth is associated with smaller volumes of the hippocampi (p = 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: MAGeT-Brain is capable of segmenting hippocampi accurately in preterm neonates, even at early-in-life. Hippocampal asymmetry with a larger right side is demonstrated on early-in-life images, suggesting that this phenomenon has its onset in the 3rd trimester of gestation. Hippocampal volume assessed at the time of early-in-life and term-equivalent age is linearly associated with GA at birth, whereby smaller volumes are associated with earlier birth.

DOI10.1016/j.nicl.2015.07.019
Alternate JournalNeuroimage Clin
PubMed ID26740912
PubMed Central IDPMC4561668
Grant ListMOP-79262 / / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / Canada
MOP-86489 / / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / Canada