Do reward-processing deficits in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders promote cannabis use? An investigation of physiological response to natural rewards and drug cues.

TitleDo reward-processing deficits in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders promote cannabis use? An investigation of physiological response to natural rewards and drug cues.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsCassidy CM, Brodeur MB, Lepage M, Malla A
JournalJ Psychiatry Neurosci
Volume39
Issue5
Pagination339-47
Date Published2014 Sep
ISSN1488-2434
KeywordsAdult, Brain, Cannabis, Cues, Electroencephalography, Electromyography, Evoked Potentials, Visual, Facial Muscles, Galvanic Skin Response, Heterosexuality, Humans, Male, Marijuana Abuse, Neuropsychological Tests, Photic Stimulation, Prognosis, Psychotic Disorders, Reward, Schizophrenic Psychology, Tobacco Use Disorder, Visual Perception
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional reward processing is present in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) and may confer vulnerability to addiction. Our objective was to identify a deficit in patients with SSD on response to rewarding stimuli and determine whether this deficit predicts cannabis use.METHODS: We divided a group of patients with SSD and nonpsychotic controls into cannabis users and nonusers. Response to emotional and cannabis-associated visual stimuli was assessed using self-report, event-related potentials (using the late positive potential [LPP]), facial electromyography and skin-conductance response.RESULTS: Our sample comprised 35 patients with SSD and 35 nonpsychotic controls. Compared with controls, the patients with SSD showed blunted LPP response to pleasant stimuli (p = 0.003). Across measures, cannabis-using controls showed greater response to pleasant stimuli than to cannabis stimuli whereas cannabis-using patients showed little bias toward pleasant stimuli. Reduced LPP response to pleasant stimuli was predictive of more frequent subsequent cannabis use (β = -0.24, p = 0.034).LIMITATIONS: It is not clear if the deficit associated with cannabis use is specific to rewarding stimuli or nonspecific to any kind of emotionally salient stimuli.CONCLUSION: The LPP captures a reward-processing deficit in patients with SSD and shows potential as a biomarker for identifying patients at risk of heavy cannabis use.

Alternate JournalJ Psychiatry Neurosci
PubMed ID24913137
PubMed Central IDPMC4160363
Grant List / / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / Canada