Brain cortical and subcortical morphology in adolescents with depression and a history of suicide attempt.

TitleBrain cortical and subcortical morphology in adolescents with depression and a history of suicide attempt.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsGifuni AJ, Chakravarty MM, Lepage M, Ho TC, Geoffroy M-C, Lacourse É, Gotlib IH, Turecki G, Renaud J, Jollant F
JournalJ Psychiatry Neurosci
Volume46
Issue3
PaginationE347-E357
Date Published2021 05 07
ISSN1488-2434
Abstract

Background: Suicidal behaviours are a major source of mortality and morbidity among adolescents. Given the maturational changes that occur in cortical and subcortical structures during adolescence, we tested whether atypical brain structural measurements were associated with a history of suicide attempt.Methods: We assessed 3 groups of adolescents (n = 92; 79% female, mean age 15.9 years, range 11.6-18.1 years): patients with a depressive disorder and a history of suicide attempt (n = 28); patient controls, who had a depressive disorder but no history of suicide attempt (n = 34); and healthy controls (n = 30). We derived regional cortical thickness and surface area, and subcortical volumes, from T1-weighted anatomic MRI scans acquired at 3 T.Results: We found significant group differences in surface area in the prefrontal, temporal and parietal regions, as well as in the volume of several subcortical nuclei (pFDR ≤ 0.05), but not in cortical thickness. Post hoc analyses indicated that morphological alterations primarily differentiated patients with a history of suicide attempt from healthy controls, but not from patient controls. However, patients with a history of suicide attempt exhibited positive correlations between age and cortical thickness in the temporal cortices and right insula, and between age and right putamen volume (i.e., thicker regional cortex and larger subcortical volumes with age). These correlations were negative in both patient controls and healthy controls (i.e., thinner regional cortex and smaller subcortical volumes).Limitations: Sample sizes, cross-sectional findings and psychiatric heterogeneity were limitations of this study.Conclusion: Macroscopic structural differences in several brain regions differentiated adolescents with a history of suicide attempt from healthy controls, but not from patient controls. However, adolescents with a history of suicide attempt may present with atypical maturation of specific cortical and subcortical regions that might contribute to the risk of suicidal behaviour.

DOI10.1503/jpn.200198
Alternate JournalJ Psychiatry Neurosci
PubMed ID33961355
PubMed Central IDPMC8327980
Grant ListK01 MH117442 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R37 MH101495 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States